The K. F. Stifter Collection
of Pre-numismatic Currencies

This catalogue presents a diverse selection of objects from all continents, which, in the history of civilization, have been regarded as money and in some instances are still regarded as such. The forms of money presented here cannot be included among coins, bank notes or book money and are often referred to as primitive money, primary money, pre-numismatic means of payment, moneta exotica, or tribal money.